Diane Kalas, Inspirational Historical Romance Author

“Hope deferred maketh the heart sick; but when the desire cometh, it is a tree of life.” Proverbs 13:12 (KJV)





Thursday, December 19, 2013

Noah Webster's Definition of "Marriage" 1856

From Diane's Antique Book Collection
Noah Webster's American Dictionary of the English Language 1856

Definition of WIFE: The lawful consort of a man; a woman who is united to a man in the lawful bonds of wedlock; the correlative of Husband.

The husband of one wife. – I Tim. iii.

Let every one of you in particular so love his wife even as himself, and let the wife see that she reverence her husband. – Eph v.

Definition of HUSBAND: 1. A man contracted or joined to a woman by marriage. A man to whom a woman is betrothed, as well as one actually united by marriage, is called a husband. Lev. xix. Deut. xxii.

2. In seamen’s language, the owner of a ship who manages its concerns in person. Mar. Dict.

3. The male of animals of a lower order. Dryden.

4. An economist; a good manager; a man who knows and practices the methods of frugality and profit. In this sense, the word is modified by an epithet; as a good husband; a bad husband. Davies. Collier. (But in America, this application of the word is little or not at all used.)

5. A farmer; a cultivator; a tiller of the ground. Bacon. Dryden. (In this sense it is not used in America; we always use HUSBANDMAN.)


Definition of MARRIAGE: 1. The act of uniting a man and woman for life, wedlock; the legal union of a man and woman for life. Marriage is a contract both civil and religious, by which the parties engage to live together in mutual affection and fidelity till death shall separate them. Marriage was instituted by God himself, for the purpose of preventing the promiscuous intercourse of the sexes, for promoting domestic felicity, and for securing the maintenance and education of children.  

Marriage is honorable in all, and the bed undefiled. – Heb. xiii.

2. The feast made on the occasion of a marriage.

The kingdom of heaven is like unto a certain king, which made a marriage for his son. – Matt. xxii.

3. In a scriptural sense, the union between Christ and his church by the covenant of grace. Rev. xix. 


Webster, Noah, AN AMERICAN DICTIONARY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE, Massachusetts, George and Charles Merriam, 1856


ADVANTAGES OF WEDLOCK

From Diane's Antique Book Collection

“When a man hath taken a new wife he shall not go to war, neither shall he be charged with any business; but he shall be free at home one year and cheer up the wife which he has taken. Deut. 24:5

Advice of Jeremy Taylor

Jeremy Taylor says: “If you are for pleasure, marry; if you prize rosy health, marry. A good wife is heaven’s last best gift to man – his angel of mercy-minister of graces innumerable – his gem of many virtues – his casket of jewels – her voice, his sweetest music – her smiles, his brightest day – her kiss, the guardian of innocence – her arms, the pale of his safety, the balm of his health, the balsam of his life-her industry, his surest wealth-her economy, his safest steward-her lips, his faithful counselors-her bosom, the softest pillow of his cares-and her prayers, the ablest advocates of heaven.”

“Doubtless you have remarked, with satisfaction,” says a writer in one of our popular magazines, “the little oddities of men who marry rather late in life are pruned away speedily after marriage. You may find a man who used to be shabbily and carelessly dressed, with huge shirt collar frayed at the edges, and a glaring yellow silk pocket-handkerchief, broken of these and become a pattern of neatness. You have seen a man whose hair and whiskers were ridiculously cut, speedily become like other human beings. You have seen a clergyman who wore a long beard, in a little while appear without one. You have seen a man who used to sing ridiculous sentimental songs leave them off. You have seen a man who took snuff copiously, and who generally had his breast covered with snuff, abandon this vile habit. A wife is the grand wielder of the moral pruning knife.

Whenever you find a man whom you know little about, oddly dressed or talking ridiculously, or exhibiting any eccentricity of manner, you may be tolerably sure he is not a married man. For the little corners are rounded off, the shoots are pruned away in married men. Wives generally have much more sense than their husbands, especially if the husbands are clever men. The wife’s advises are like the ballast that keeps the ship steady. They are like the wholesome though painful shears snipping off the little growth of self-conceit and folly.

Wells, A. M., Richard A., MANNERS, CULTURE AND DRESS, Massachusetts, King, Richardson & Company Publishers, 1893


Monday, October 28, 2013

George A. Custer: Cadet Oath Upon Entering West Point

Former West Point Classmates
Photo by James F. Gibson, courtesy Library of Congress
Civil War Treasures from the New York Historical Society


The photo above shows Union Captain George A. Custer, sitting beside a former West Point classmate and friend, Confederate Lieutenant James B. Washington, who had been captured by General McClellan's men in May 1862. Custer was serving as an aide on McClellan's staff at the time. Note the men are sitting so close beside each other that their shoulders, elbows and knees are touching. The bond between West Point graduates was so strong not even a Civil War could ruin their friendships.

The Cadet Oath Taken by Robert E. Lee Upon Entering West Point, September 25, 1825:

"I, Robert E. Lee, a cadet born in the State of Virginia, aged 18 years and 9 months, do hereby acknowledge to have this day voluntarily engaged with the consent of my mother to serve in the Army of the United States for a period of five years, unless sooner discharged by proper authority. And I do promise upon honor that I will observe and obey the orders of the officers appointed over me, the rules and articles of war, and the regulations which have been or may hereafter be established for the government of the Military Academy."

Source: Freeman, Douglas, S.,R. E. LEE: A Biography, Vol. 1, page 51
Source: Civil War Talk.com

The Cadet Oath Taken Upon Entering West Point
Regulations for the United States Military Academy, 1857 edition.

"I, (cadet name) of the State of (state) aged (cadet age) years, months, having been selected for an appointment as Cadet in the Military Academy of the United States, do hereby engage with the consent of my (parent or guardian) in the event of my receiving such appointment, that I will serve in the army of the United States for eight years, unless sooner discharged by competent authority. And I (cadet name) DO SOLEMNLY SWEAR (emphasis original), that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the United States of America, and that I will serve them HONESTLY and FAITHFULLY (emphasis original), against all their enemies or opposers whatsoever; and that I will observe and obey the orders of the President of the United States, and the orders of the Officers appointed over me, according to the Rules and Articles of War."

Source: Civil War Talk.com

The Current Cadet Oath Taken Upon Entering 
The United States Military Academy

"I, (cadet's name), do solemnly swear that I will support the Constitution of the United States, and bear true allegiance to the National Government; that I will maintain and defend the sovereignty of the United States, paramount to any and all allegiance, sovereignty, or fealty I may owe to any State or Country whatsoever; and that I will at all times obey the legal orders of my superior officers, and the Uniform Code of Military Justice."

Source: BUGLE NOTES, West Point Academy, 2013

Rumors came to a head at West Point Academy on George Washington's birthday, February 22, 1861. The incumbent President, James Buchanan, tried to prevent a mass resignation of cadets from the Academy before Lincoln's inauguration and directed the cadets be read:
"The Friendly Counsel and Prophetic Warnings Contained in 
Washington's Farewell Address to His Troops."

The cadets were marched into the chapel, the tradition on Washington's birthday, to listen to the staff read the address. Throughout the address, the call for union is stressed much to the annoyance of cadets from the South. All classes had been cancelled for the day because of the holiday and, after the chapel service, the cadets spent the rest of the day discussing politics and the impending war. At the end of the day, the band marched across the parade ground playing Washington's March then The Star Spangled Banner. Suddenly, all hell broke loose! Cadets rushed to every window. 

Tom Rosser of Virginia, Custer's room mate called out: "Secession, Secession - Dixie, Play Dixie!"

The Southerners broke into singing "Dixie" while on the other side of the quadrangle, Custer led the singing of The Star Spangled Banner." The Academy was divided.

Source: www.americancivilwar.asn.au/meet/2002
West Point Classmates - Civil War Enemies by Paul Kensey, October Meeting 2002




George A. Custer in the Civil War

George Armstrong Custer
More is known about Custer’s Indian War campaigns, under the direction and authority of the United States Department of War, than his Civil War record. Custer participated in over one hundred engagements and earned him the title Boy-General. The title was appropriate for a young man just twenty-three and the youngest general in the Federal service.

When Custer’s service began, a cavalryman was used for escort duty, scouting or message carrying. Infantrymen at the time had a statement that spoke to their feelings: “You’ll never see a dead cavalryman.” Custer changed all that as a new commander of the Michigan Cavalry Brigade who shouted: “Come on you Wolverines,” as he led them in a charge against the seemingly invincible JEB Stuart at Gettysburg. 

The Confederate Stuart was leading his superior force of veteran Confederate cavalry around the Union right on July 3, at the moment the Federal cannons were pounding Pickett’s men as they crossed the wheat fields between Seminary and Cemetery ridges. In a series of charges and counter charges, Custer drove the Confederate forces from the field saving the Union line on Cemetery Ridge.

Custer in his red necktie, and braid-covered, velveteen uniform was in the front of the charge where his men could see him. Custer believed his job was to instill courage in his men and to lead by example.

Custer knew and loved horses and he rode a fast-gaited mount that he could move back and forth rapidly in front of his command, presenting a more difficult target while he was at it. The records indicate Custer had a dozen horses shot under him in the course of the war, but was wounded just once himself.

General Hugh S. Johnson believed that Custer’s spectacular charge so shattered Stuart’s cavalry it saved the battle for General Meade. Following that final day of July 3, it was Custer who ripped the rear of General Lee’s bedraggled forces as they made their weary way back to Virginia where they recouped and regrouped to fight another day.

Custer was best known as a tactician, although some considered him a genius on the field, he displayed ability as a strategist. Custer and General Alfred Torbert planned a cavalry attack on Cold Harbor that was approved by Sheridan and supported by Meade and Grant. It was successful beyond all expectations, partially because Custer replaced his armchair with a saddle and led his men in the engagement

Through Custer’s Civil War years, he was appointed to the staffs of Generals Baldy Smith, Kearny, Hancock, McClellan, Hooker and Pleasonton as requested. These were not by chance or a matter of political influence appointments. Custer was commended for his ability and zeal.

Custer displayed his qualities of generalship in the battles of Cedar Creek, Five Forks, Cold Harbor, and Yellow Tavern where one of his men killed JEB Stuart.

In the final phase of the campaign in 1865, Custer drove his men hard. It was the cavalry’s job to lead the relentless drive that would force General Lee to surrender. Sheridan made every effort to head off Lee near Appomattox Court House, Virginia. Near there on April 8, he reported: “Custer, who had the advance, made a dash at the station, capturing four trains of supplies with locomotives. Custer pushed on toward Appomattox Court House, driving the enemy, charging them repeatedly.”

Once the terms of surrender were decided upon by Grant and Lee, Sheridan purchased a small pine table from the owner of the house, Wilmer McLean, that cost him $20 in gold, for the official and historical event. Afterward, Sheridan addressed a short letter to Mrs. Custer and then presented the table and letter to Custer:
                                                Appomattox Court House
April 10, 1865
My dear Madam:

I respectfully present to you the small writing table on which the conditions for the surrender of the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia were written by Lt. Gen. Grant – and permit me to say, Madam, that there is scarcely an individual in our service who has contributed more to bring about this desirable result than your very gallant husband.
                                                Very Respectfully,
                                                Phil Sheridan
                                                Major General

Frost, Lawrence A. THE CUSTER ALBUM, Washington, Superior Publishing Company
            1984

Whittaker, Frederick, A COMPLETE LIFE OF GEN. GEORGE A. CUSTER, New York, 1876

Monday, October 21, 2013

Myth #4. How George A. Custer Became a General


Myth #4. In the movie, They Died With Their Boots On, starring Errol Flynn in 1942, Hollywood produced a wildly inventive account of Custer’s life and military commissions. No sign of truth anywhere in the film. The following list is Custer’s U.S. Army Commissions that are in the possession of the Custer Battlefield National Monument:

June 24, 1861 - Second Lieutenant in the Second Regiment of Cavalry. Signed by Abraham Lincoln, Sept. 9, 1861. Custer was a recent West Point Academy graduate.

June 5, 1862 – Additional Aide-de-Camp with the rank of Captain. Signed by Abraham Lincoln, July 30, 1862

July 17, 1862 – First Lieutenant in Fifth Regiment of Cavalry. Signed by Abraham Lincoln, June 6, 1863.

June 29, 1863 – Brigadier General of Volunteers. Signed by Abraham Lincoln, March 11, 1864.

July 3, 1863 – Brevet Major for gallant and meritorious services at the Battle of Gettysburg, PA. Signed by Andrew Johnson, August 3, 1866.

May 8, 1864 – Captain in Fifth Regiment of Cavalry. Signed by Andrew Johnson, June 1, 1865.

May 11, 1864 – Brevet Lieutenant Colonel for gallant and meritorious services at the Battle of Yellow Tavern, VA. Signed by Andrew Johnson, August 2, 1866.

September 19, 1864 – Brevet Colonel for gallant and meritorious services at the Battle of Winchester, VA. Signed by Andrew Johnson, August 1, 1866.

October 19, 1864 – Brevet Major General of Volunteers for gallant and meritorious service at the Battles of Winchester and Fisher’s Hill, VA.

March 13, 1865 – Brevet Major General for gallant and meritorious services during the campaign ending with the surrender of the insurgent army of Northern Virginia. Signed by Andrew Johnson, July 28, 1866.

April 15, 1865 – Major General of Volunteers. Signed by Andrew Johnson, March 10, 1866.

July 28, 1866 – Lieutenant Colonel of the Seventh Regiment of Cavalry. Signed by Andrew Johnson, March 5, 1867.

From the information listed above, you can see Custer was made a General or Brevet Major or Brevet Colonel several times and always for gallant and meritorious services. A brevet was a commission giving an officer higher nominal rank than that for which he received pay. It was an honor conferred by the Senate for meritorious service or heroism. Many were conferred upon staff officers who saw no active combat, creating much resentment among those officers who were serving on the line of action.

For a time, an officer with a brevet frequently was assigned a command commensurate with his brevet rank and was paid accordingly. For that reason, the honor was not an empty one. In addition, the recipient bore the title of his highest rank for his entire career. General Custer is a case in point. Socially and oftentimes officially, Custer was addressed as General though his rank in the Seventh Cavalry was that of Lieutenant Colonel. In this last instance, he received the pay and the compensation of a lieutenant colonel.

After the war, there was a scramble for the available openings in a much smaller post war army. Regular army officers, who held high rank in the Volunteer Army, had been dropped in grade to their regular army grades in keeping with the need for fewer officers. Appointments were often made based on the influence of friends in high places as well as the professional background and abilities of the applicants.

Custer’s Civil War record worked for him and in the end worked against him. Unknown to George, he made enemies within the officer ranks, men he had not even met during the war. Career army officers accumulated a level of envy and jealousy over Custer’s youthful promotions that allowed them to engage in gossip, slander, and bearing false witness against Custer in military courts, personal letters and even books they wrote on the famous boy-general.

Frost, Lawrence A., CUSTER LEGENDS, Ohio, Bowling Green University Popular Press, 1981

Utley, Robert M., FRONTIER REGULARS, New York, 1973


Note: All of Custer’s commissions listed are in the files of the Custer Battlefield National Monument. Also in the files, is a letter from Major General Phil Sheridan to Secretary of War Station, dated April 6, 1866, requesting that Gen. Custer be appointed “Colonel of Cavalry upon the reorganization of the Army.” He added to the request that “The record of this officer is so conspicuous as to render its recital by me unnecessary. I ask this appointment as a reward to one of the most gallant and efficient officers that ever served under me.” 

Monday, October 14, 2013

Myth #3 - Custer's Flamboyant Attire

Custer’s Vanity and Distinctive Appearance

Myth #3.         “His vanity, his desire to appear distinctive, led him to don whatever dress would make him most conspicuous and distinguish him from his companions.” A quote from Charles J. Brill, author of Conquest of the Southern Plains.

Answer:           Custer permitted his curly, blond hair to grow long, cutting it short when he married Libbie Bacon, and vowed not to cut it again until he entered Richmond. And later as Custer prepared to leave Fort Abraham Lincoln in the spring of 1876, he cut it short, presumably because they would be within a country known to be quite warm at that time of year. Barbers were not a common complement of the service. Shaves and haircuts were often self-administered. In addition to the practical reasons he kept his hair short, Custer knew he had attractive hair and wasn’t embarrassed to wear it long.

Custer’s choice of a hat had to do with his having a light complexion that burned readily with sun exposure. Instead of the regulation dress hat, he usually wore a broad-brimmed, flat topped, sombrero, either of straw or light colored felt. At West Point, his fair skin with pink tones earned him the name Fanny. The Southern cavalryman had learned that straw was cooler than felt, and that a light color reflected the warm rays of the sun. The Northern army did not adopt this style.

While campaigning on the plains, Custer found a pair of buckskin trousers and a fringed buckskin jacket that was waist length both comfortable and durable. At times, he wore moccasins but preferred Wellington cavalry boots that afforded protection for his legs while on the trail.

The cavalry officers and enlisted men were permitted to dress informally while campaigning. Many men would have canvas sewed onto their trousers at the points of wear on the seat and inner thighs. Government issued shirts were not mandatory. Checkered black and white shirts were popular as were navy blue. Hats were seen in numerous shapes and sizes, because everyone disliked the regulation black felt hat. The hat was hot and unshapely after being in the rain.

For a time, Custer wore red flannel shirts until Libbie begged him to give them up for obvious reasons. He became an even more noticeable target, wearing the bright red shirts.

At the post, Custer wore the standard and accepted uniforms that lieutenant colonels customarily wore. While on garrison duty, he dressed smartly and expected his officers to do likewise. He wanted them to respect themselves in the way they dressed and that would result in respect for the outfit they served. This was just one of many requirements Custer used in developing esprit de corps in the Seventh Cavalry.

When Custer visited New York, during the winter, he would wear civilian clothes. When he was elevated to the rank of brigadier general in the Civil War, he had the prerogative of designing his own uniform. Some called it a bizarre uniform. General James H. Kidd, then a colonel in the Michigan Cavalry Brigade, described Custer after viewing him when he first took command.

“I saw an officer superbly mounted who sat his charger as if to the manner born. Tall, lithe, active, muscular, straight as an Indian and as quick in his movements, he had the fair complexion of a schoolgirl.

Custer was clad in a suit of black velvet, elaborately trimmed with gold lace, which ran down the outer seams of his trousers, and almost covered the sleeves of his cavalry jacket. The wide collar of the blue navy shirt was turned down over the collar of his velvet jacket, and a necktie of brilliant crimson was tied in a graceful knot at the throat, the long ends falling carelessly in front. The double row of buttons on his breast was arranged in groups of two, indicating the rank of a brigadier general. A soft, black hat with wide brim adorned with a gilt cord, and a rosette encircling a silver star was worn turned down on one side giving him a rakish air. His golden hair fell in graceful luxuriance nearly to his shoulders, and his upper lip was garnished with a blond mustache. A sword and belt, gilt spurs and top boots, completed his unique outfit.

That garb, fantastic as at first sight it appeared to be was to be, the distinguishing mark which, during all the remaining years of that war, like the white plume of Henry of Navarre, was to show us where, in the thickest of the fight, we were to seek our leader – for, where danger was . . . there was he, always.”

Like the company guidon, the personal designating flag or the regimental standard, Custer was the rallying point and none could fail to see where he was located. He once said that by being in front where his men would see him in that uniform and red necktie, sharing their dangers and inviting the enemies’ bullets, he served to set an example.


General George Patton, in more recent time, used a similar psychology. Patton used to ride in a jeep at the head of a tank advance. When Patton was seen standing in the lead tank or jeep, a pair of ivory handled revolvers strapped to him, his men took on new courage. The faintest of hearts beat faster when they saw their commanding general up in front sharing their hardships and danger. Obviously, the revolvers were symbolic of his horse cavalry days, because they had no use in tank warfare. Who would doubt it was Patton when they spotted those revolvers? 

Frost, Lawrence A., CUSTER LEGENDS, Ohio, Bowling Green University Popular Press, 1981
          

Thursday, October 10, 2013

Myth #2 - Custer Graduated Last In His West Point Class

Custer’s West Point Academy Years

When Custer arrived at the West Point wharf in the summer of 1857, to begin the five years of training then required to graduate from the United States Military Academy, he became one of the 300 boys granted this privilege. He was an 18-year-old boy whose face showed the softness of youth with no hard angles. At nearly 6 feet tall with a slim build, he had blond wavy hair with a fair complexion that sunburned easily and sun sensitive eyes.

Young Custer had achieved his first of many dreams, acceptance into our country’s finest military academy. His military career would bring him universal fame, prestige, and accolades in both civilian and military spheres. The time period being age 18 in 1857, until June 25, 1876, when he died at 36 years of age. In 18 years, a young man from farming communities in Ohio and Michigan, would become the most well known U.S. Cavalryman and earn a position in the history books.

Myth #2.         George Armstrong Custer graduated last in his West Point Class

Answer:           In one of the last articles Custer had written for publication, he observed that: “My career as a cadet had but little to commend it to the study of those who came after me, unless as an example to be carefully avoided. My offenses against law and order were not great in enormity, but what they lacked in magnitude they made up in number. The resignation and departure of the Southern cadets took away from the Academy a few individuals who, had they remained, would probably have contested with me the debatable honor of bringing up the rear of the class.”

Except for a few young men, there seemed to be no hard feelings when Southern boys began leaving the Academy at the early state of the Rebellion and returned home to join the armed forces of their home states. Cadets were broad-minded, professionals-to-be who respected their fellow cadets loyalties even when they did not agree.

Here’s a quote from Custer on the subject: “Any Southern cadet who wants to leave the Academy and go home and fight for his home State has a clear right to. I’m going to stick to the Union, but I refuse to hold the slightest bitterness against any Southern cadet or Southern army officer who resigns and follows the fortunes of his own State.”

West Pointers consider the last man graduating at the Academy to be the “goat.” Custer graduated 34 out of 34 students. Custer’s class had started in 1857 with 79 names on the roster. The drop-outs started immediately. Twenty-two cadets didn’t show up for admission. One died on sick leave. Twenty-two resigned because of the Civil War. Many of the latter, and some had less than a semester to graduate, joined and fought on the side of the Confederacy.

John Carroll, one of the country’s leading Custer authorities, is of the belief that 23 members of the class that started with Custer in 1857, conceivably could have finished behind Custer. As he said in a comprehensive study of the subject: “It is not only completely wrong, but faulty to claim Custer as the “Goat.” True, he finished last, but this was because of a decimated class and not necessarily because of an earned academic standing.”

The term “goat” as applied to Custer is a traditional one that was applied to the graduate who was at the very bottom of his class. Actually, it didn’t apply to Custer for the term was not yet in use. Classes at West Point Academy up to 1861 were scheduled for five years.

In May 1861, the five year class graduated from West Point Academy. In June 1861, the four year students were allowed to graduate West Point due to the Federal government’s desperate need for Army officers. George A. Custer was in the June 1861 graduating class.

In the final analysis Custer has been victimized and made to appear, through inaccurate research, as the “goat” of his class. John Carroll, Custer historian, has laid that myth to rest.

While growing up, Custer and his family enjoyed practical jokes. This habit never left George and throughout his brief life, especially during his West Point years, he had a reputation as a prankster, dare-devil, and carefree fellow.

Custer’s Academy records indicate he had done well in scholastic performance. However, he also earned more demerits for nonsense than most. He had to cut and run at sight of an adjutant in full uniform for fear he would be placed in arrest and confined to quarters. To classmates, Custer had more fun, gave his friends more anxiety, walked more tours of extra guard, and came nearer being dismissed more often than any other cadet.

While at the Academy, Custer began to let his hair grow long a la Cody. After being reported several times, he shaved his head and wore a wig. He was reported numerous times for “Hair out of uniform,” to the amusement of classmates.

In a letter to a friend, Custer describes how some cadets left the Academy grounds late at night to go into a nearby town for the purpose of enjoying things that were not allowed, such as ice cream, candies, fruit, wine and liquors. They had to change clothes and sneak out. This was very risky and the penalty severe, if caught. He didn’t actually admit to his friend that he participated, but I’m thinking – yes, he did and loved the thrill of adventure.

Brig. Gen. Evans Andruss wrote to Libbie Custer: “His boyish, but harmless frolics kept him in constant hot water. He was beyond doubt the most popular man in his class and even the plebes (Andruss was one while Custer was a cadet) deemed it an honor and a pleasure to be ‘deviled’ by him.” Custer was an “immortal” to those who came after him. Cadet Custer exhibited the high jinks of a rambunctious youth right off a farm and living hundreds of miles from home.

Custer excelled at horsemanship and made the highest jump on record with the exception of a higher jump made by Cadet Ulysses S. Grant who graduated the Academy in 1843. Custer was the strongest man in his class. He demonstrated his physical strength when, while lying down he would spring up to a standing position in one fluid motion.


Custer graduated the United States Military Academy just in time to be present at the first battle of Bull Run on July 21, 1861. He, no doubt, called it “Custer luck.” He had been assigned as a second lieutenant to the Second U.S. Cavalry when he saw the first smoke of battle on that occasion, although he took no active role.

Carroll, John, WAS CUSTER REALLY THE GOAT OF HIS CLASS, an address given before The Little Big Horn Associates at Louisville, Kentucky, October 1974

Frost, Lawrence A., CUSTER LEGENDS, Ohio, Bowling Green University Popular Press, 1981


           

Custer Historian, Lawrence A. Frost

Lawrence A. Frost (1907-1990)

The following is information on the main Custer author whose work I am using for my blog articles.

Lawrence A. Frost, a podiatrist and an historian, published several books on George A. Custer, including biographical works on General Philip Sheridan, General Ulysses S. Grant, and Thomas A. Edison. Dr. Frost spent a lifetime in researching Custer, his career and personal life.

Dr. Frost, a 1929 graduate of Ohio College of Podiatry Medicine in Cleveland, became interested in Custer a decade later when he was studying the history of shoes and boots. He collected footwear worn by notables; a pair of boots worn by Custer in the Civil War was included in a display in his office.

Dr. Frost owned 2,000 books relating to Custer in his library and over 1,000 magazine articles. In his opinion, some reviewers had little knowledge to recommend anyone reading their reviews and many authors of books on Custer had little in their background and research to offer anything new.

Dr. Frost taught at the Illinois College of Podiatry Medicine in Chicago and at his alma mater.




Monday, October 7, 2013

Myth #1 - George Armstrong Custer

The Myths of George Armstrong Custer

Myth #1. George was born in Monroe, Michigan.

Answer: George was born in New Rumley, Ohio, December 5, 1839, the son of Emanuel and Marie. Custer’s nickname was Autie, his mispronunciation of his middle name as a child. George’s father was a blacksmith who loved horses, but also farmed for a living. George, no doubt, developed his love of horses from his childhood experiences

The Custer family moved to Monroe, Michigan, in 1842, and lived there for six months and returned to New Rumley. George’s family was close-knit and this began a length of time where George moved back and forth between his father’s farm and his half sister’s home in Monroe, spending two years with each family as needed. While in Monroe, George’s brother-in-law owned a livery business and George helped tend the horses, while going to the Stebbins Academy. George returned to New Rumley at the age of 16 to attend the McNeely Normal School in Hopedale. George secured his teacher’s certificate from the Harrison County Board of School Examiners and obtained a teaching position at the Beech Point School.

George wanted a military career in the U. S. Cavalry and his father supported his wishes. George secured the nomination for the United States Military Academy from Congressman John Bingham. George’s father signed the acceptance of appointment to West Point, and George reported to West Point, New York, in the summer of 1857. He was 18 years old.


Merington, Marguerite THE CUSTER STORY, New York, The Devin-Adair Company, 1950

George Armstrong Custer, an Introduction

A National Phenomenon – George Armstrong Custer

A long time ago, a person wrote an article about judging historical figures from the 20th century perspective, cautioning readers to use a wide lens. George Armstrong Custer is one of those historical, larger-than-life characters requiring an uncritical mindset at the beginning of the research. According to the librarian at the Monroe County Library in Monroe, Michigan, no other historical figure has had as many books written about him as Custer. Just mention his last name and most people recall Custer was a Civil War hero, Indian fighter, and died in the line of duty as the commander of the famed Seventh Cavalry attacking a sleeping village of innocent Native Americans.

Discovering the truth, setting aside the myths or legends about Custer, from a distance of 137 years is time consuming but not very difficult. While I cannot interview the man, or anyone who knew him personally or casually, what I do have is a staggering amount of government documents from West Point Military Academy and the U.S. Army available to me. In addition, personal letters written by Custer to his wife, family members, friends, superior officers, and books he wrote describing his life on the plains, serial articles he wrote for magazines and lectures he gave on his adventurous life. I can also read the many numerous books written about Custer authored by fellow U.S. Army officers both friend and foe. Moreover, I cannot overlook the numbers of books written by Custer scholars and historians in this century.

My journey into Custer’s world began with a story idea I had where he and his wife are secondary characters, hometown neighbors and friends of my heroine. What I learned about Custer made me want to call him George or Autie as a friend would call him. I would also like to ask him “What were you thinking, George, when you . . .”

I decided to write a series of blog articles about the controversial boy-general, focusing on the myths surrounding Custer’s military career and some of his personal life. I am not a Custer scholar or historian. I have a passion for writing inspirational historical romance and want to pass along some of the information I have found in my research.


As always, I enjoy comments left on my blog.

Tuesday, May 28, 2013

WIDOW OF GETTYSBURG BOOK REVIEW

Jocelyn Green's new release
Book 2 Heroines Behind the Lines - Civil War

 
WIDOW OF GETTYSBURG BOOK REVIEW
After reading WEDDED TO WAR, Book 1 of Heroines Behind the Lines, I couldn’t wait until Book 2, WIDOW OF GETTYSBURG was published.  Even though I knew what happened in Gettysburg July 1-3, 1863, I devoured the story as if I was learning about the tragic event for the first time. I particularly liked that Jocelyn wrote WIDOW OF GETTYSBURG in five acts: The Gathering Storm, The Heavens Collide, In the Fog, The Smoke Clears, and Beauty from Ashes.
 
The townspeople in WIDOW OF GETTYSBURG are headed for a catastrophe in June 1863, although unaware of the imminent danger. The build up and introduction of characters in WIDOW OF GETTYSBURG increased the stressful anticipation as I read the rumors and misinformation that circulated about General Lee’s army and its exact location. I also felt their hope as ordinary citizens put their trust in Federal troops to protect them. The horrendous drama of a battle, involving thousands of Northern and Southern soldiers, soon erupts within the characters’ hometown, within their front yards, and even within their very homes.
 
In Act One I met the heroine, Liberty Holloway, a young woman who had a sad childhood but is determined to face the future alone. The handsome hero calls himself Johnny and intends to keep his real identity to himself. Is he a true Rebel or not? The restrictive rules and prejudices, regarding women whether white or freed black are threaded throughout the story realistically. Jocelyn has also written about female slaves and slave owners with straightforward honesty.
 
WIDOW OF GETTYSBURG is a splendid work of long historical fiction with a touch of romance. Jocelyn’s attention to the complex facts of the battle, combined with the neglect and medical mistreatment of wounded, shortages of medical supplies, food, and clean water is based on historical facts Jocelyn researched thoroughly.
 
I highly recommend WIDOW OF GETTYSBURG where well-defined characters, dangerous and even quirky, carry you into their turbulent world to a conclusion sure to satisfy anyone who enjoys a story set against the background of an historic calamity that is still discussed today.
 
Be sure to check out Jocelyn’s “History behind the Story,” in the back of the book. Jocelyn identifies non-fiction characters in WIDOW OF GETTYSBURG who were there in Gettysburg at the time of the battle or afterward to add authenticity to her story. Well done, Jocelyn.

JOCELYN GREEN AUTHOR INTERVIEW

Jocelyn Green, author of WIDOW OF GETTYSBURG

Welcome, Jocelyn. I'm so pleased to have you on my blog to answer a few questions about WIDOW OF GETTYSBURG, book 2 your marvelous series Heroines Behind the Lines. This must be a busy and an exciting time for you.
 
 
How has receiving a contract for your Heroines Behind the Lines books changed your life?

It keeps me busy, that’s for sure! J With two small children, I wasn’t really in danger of being bored anyway. But right before I signed the contract for the Heroines series, I seriously wondered if I was at the end of my book-writing career. I started writing for military wives when I was one myself, and since then I’ve published four nonfiction books for military families. My well of original material to share was running dry. I thought I had nothing else to share with the world in book format.

 So when this opportunity to write fiction materialized, it opened up an entirely new world of possibilities for me, right at the time I was ready to put down my pen. I’m not sure how many novels God has in store for me to write, but I’m enjoying the ride while it lasts.

 How did you organize the massive amount of research for WIDOW OF GETTYSBURG?

 I used a three-ring binder to organize all the photocopies I had made of the manuscripts I found in Gettysburg archives. Then I used 3x5 color-coded note cards for the rest of my research. Of course, sometimes it was just easier to buy the book and underline and tag information in it to my heart’s content, so I did splurge on several books in order to do that. Otherwise I would fill a notebook taking notes from just one book! For more visual information, I pinned photographs of Gettysburg home interiors, maps, sketches of troops movements over the battlefield, etc., on a huge bulletin board that I prop up right next to my desk.

Was the research for WIDOW OF GETTYSBURG difficult to deal with, personally, in regards to the treatment of female slaves, and the overwhelming suffering of the wounded during and after the battle?

Yes, it was. I have been writing about America’s wars for seven years, interviewing soldiers, veterans, Blue Star and Gold Star family members, and of course researching primary sources from earlier wars. I have read and heard more than my fair share about suffering. One might think that I’d be desensitized to it by now, but I’m not. I can handle a lot, but every once in a while, I just have to shut the book and take a deep breath. Sometimes I end up crying over what I read. If I research right before bed I do get nightmares from it. (So I don’t do that anymore.)

The treatment of female slaves was a new topic for me to delve into. It was hard to read about, and it was hard to write about. But these ugly pieces of our history should not be swept under the rug. I’m not saying we need to dwell on it, but we do have to acknowledge that it’s all part of our country’s story. The great news is that God can redeem the darkest moments of our past.

 Is the Civil War your favorite era for writing fiction or do you have others as well?

It is right now, simply because it’s what I’m currently writing. J But if I get a chance to write more novels set in a different time period after this, that will probably become a “favorite era,” too. I’d like to try a contemporary novel, but I’m also very interested in the Depression era, in addition to the various wars.

What is the one thing you wish you had known before you started writing fiction?

There is more than one thing I wish I would have known, but one is how much better the story will be if all the main characters have secrets. Big ones. In Widow of Gettysburg, everyone’s hiding something, at least in the beginning. It’s much more interesting that way.

If you could travel back in time when and where would you go?

I’d go back to the day America learned that World War 2 was over, and we were victorious. Can you imagine what that must have been like? All over the country, but especially where the wives and children waited for their loved ones, it must have been electric.

When not writing, what fills your time?

Right now, digging up dandelions, playing board games with my kids, reading, and wondering what on earth to make for dinner. In the fall I’ll start homeschooling our seven-year-old, so that will take some time too. I’m looking forward to it.

What new lessons is the Lord teaching you right now?

The theme of Widow of Gettysburg is taken from Psalm 30:5. Weeping endures for a night, but joy comes in the morning. The lesson for me is to be patient in the night. One person’s “night” could last a week or a decade. We don’t know when the light is coming, but we do know that it will. The lesson is to trust God’s plan, even when we feel we’re in the dark.

Thank you, Jocelyn, for answering my questions. I enjoyed learning a little more about you and your work. Can't wait for book 3 to be published in Heroines Behind the Lines

JUNE 3: WE HAVE A WINNER! THANK YOU FOR YOUR COMMENTS.

WE'RE HAVING A RANDOM DRAWING IN 7 DAYS! Please leave a comment for a chance to win a signed copy of Jocelyn’s Widow of Gettysburg plus Fanny Kemble’s Journals. One of Fanny Kemble’s journals was published in July 1863 and played a key role in Widow of Gettysburg.

  

Thursday, May 2, 2013

BACHELOR BUTTONS BOOK REVIEW

Kathleen Maher's new release

BACHELOR BUTTONS 

Recently, I had the privilege to read an advanced copy of BACHELOR BUTTONS, a novella by Kathleen Maher. Because I share the same passion for Civil War history as Kathleen, I knew the story would hold my interest.

What I didn’t know . . . Kathleen’s character development and setting are phenomenal. The Irish brogue identified the characters, although not in an intrusive way. The tenement setting in New York City drew me into their turbulent world and showed a national crisis exploding into their lives. Nowhere to run, nowhere to hide. I couldn’t read fast enough!

On the playful side, the heroine of BACHELOR BUTTONS loves having two eligible young men pursuing her affections, and mischievously pits them against each other in a spontaneous foot race. The hero is not the preferred bachelor according to Da, Rose's father. The Christian faith integrated in the story is believable and appropriate. Kathleen wrote fully recognizable characters with occupations, present day goals, and dreams for the future. All within a novella. Remarkable accomplishment for a writer of historical fiction. My hat’s off to Kathleen.

 As a lover of American history, I learned more details about the draft riots in New York City in July 1863, and from the point of view of the characters in BACHELOR BUTTONS. Kathleen handled the controversial subject through the characters who had something to gain or something to lose by the political decisions made in Washington, D.C.
 
Not until I finished reading BACHELOR BUTTONS did I realize Kathleen’s heroine, Rose, is based on her maternal great, great grandmother Katherine Meehan who lived in Manhattan’s lower East side during the Civil War. Even the foot race for Rose’s hand happened between the real-life suitors of Katherine, an Irish doctor and a violin teacher depicted in the novella.

Interesting to note is Kathleen’s son, Daniel Talvi, designed the cover art for BACHELOR BUTTONS. Daniel did a professional job incorporating a Civil War flag with a violin, another contribution to Kathleen’s family record. 

BACHELOR BUTTONS, a Civil War Romance, Volume 3, is being distributed as an ebook first. Later, each of the novellas in the American Civil War series: CRY FREEDOM, presented by Murray Pura, will go to print as part of a collection. Release date for print is unknown at this time.

In summary, BACHELOR BUTTONS is a wonderful read. The characters will stay with you a long time. Thank you, Kathleen, for sharing a fascinating segment in Civil War history and your family’s personal story.

Here's the Amazon link to order BACHELOR BUTTONS:
 



 

KATHLEEN MAHER, AUTHOR INTERVIEW


Kathleen Maher, author of BACHELOR BUTTONS

Welcome, Kathleen, and congratulations on your debut novella, BACHELOR BUTTONS. Thank you for allowing me to interview you.
 
 
Tell me a little about yourself.

Well, I am a dog lover. I am owned by a rescued Newfoundland, a Newfoundland Golden Retriever mix, and my most recent addition, a Boxer mystery mix puppy. I have written stories since I was in kindergarten. I have three kids, one of whom has autism, and is very gifted at writing himself. And I am still on my honeymoon after 15 years of marriage to my best friend John. I’ve been a born again Christian since I was seven years old, and have had many faith adventured over the years. J

 How long have your been writing and when did you first realize you were called to write inspirational fiction?

Even though I have dabbled at story as long as I could write, I would say it really became important to me in high school. I completed a novel by the time I was a senior, and then started another one my senior year. And as far as inspirational, that happened after I entered my first writing contest in 2007. It was a secular contest with a very big name, and the experience left me with a longing to tell stories that uplifted and encouraged, that glorified the Lord.

 When did you decide to write BACHELOR BUTTONS and why?

Bachelor Buttons came out of a family story about my great, great grandmother who had two suitors—a doctor and a violin instructor. She made them run a foot race to decide which one to marry. I had always wanted to use that in my writing, and then when Murray Pura contacted me about participating in his Civil War short story collection in February, I felt it was the perfect venue. My great, great grandmother lived in Manhattan, and actually was alive when the Draft Riots took place, only she was a little girl. With a bit of tweaking, I made her character of courting age, and juxtaposed their story into the time frame of 1863.

 Any surprises in the research for BACHELOR BUTTONS?

Yes, actually. I had always known that most of the violence of the riots was committed sadly by Irish against freed black men. What I didn’t know was that heroes emerged from among the Irish also, such as the many firemen and police who countered the mobs’ destruction, and also, a neighborhood of Irish who protected their black neighbor from lynching and attack on his business.

 What project are you working on now?

Two. One is a Colonial short story set in New York state. And another is a fairy tale, which I am VERY excited about.

 Is the Civil War your favorite era for writing an historical novel or are there others?

Civil War was my first love, and that is why I was delighted to participate in this collection. I know I won’t always get to write Civil War, so thank goodness I have other interests, such as WWII, medieval, and 19th century.

 Are you a seat-of-the-pants writer or do you outline before starting the first draft?

Both. LOL  I outline in my head, and sometimes on paper, and then let the characters take me where they will.

 Name a person from history whom you would enjoy meeting and tell why.   

I love this question, and yet I never know how to answer it. Probably because there are several. I can’t wait to meet my relatives in heaven, such as the inspiration for my hero and heroine, Katherine Meehan and William Lee. But I also want to meet Elijah. I love reading about him in the book of Kings. I want to meet Robert E. Lee and just listen to his stories. Thank God heaven goes on forever, because it would take me forever to sit at the feet of all of my heroes.

Thank you so much for having me on your blog, Diane. You are a blessing to help me share about my debut novella. Can’t wait until your Civil War series sells and I can return the favor! Lord bless you, my friend. Kathy

I appreciate the time taken to answer my nosy questions, Kathleen!

Please leave a comment for Kathleen, and a chance to win a free copy of BACHELOR BUTTONS, an ebook, or a lovely gift basket. In one week, we will have a random drawing. Don't forget to include your email address. Thank you.

Congratulations to Cynthia Lovely for winning Kathy's novella and Irish gift basket. Her name was drawn through random.org. We want to thank each of you for visiting this week.


 

Friday, April 26, 2013

19th CENTURY ETIQUETTE - BOATING, ROWING, LADIES ROWING

Diane's Antique Book Collection

ETIQUETTE OF PUBLIC PLACES

Boating.- The reader may doubtless be surprised that we should treat of etiquette when speaking of boating, still there are little customs and usages of politeness to be observed even in the roughest sports in which a gentleman takes part.

            Never think of venturing out with ladies alone, unless you are perfectly conversant with the management of a boat, and, above all, never overload your boat. There have been more accidents caused by the neglect of these two rules than can be imagined.

            If two are going out with ladies, let one take his stand in the boat and conduct the ladies to their seats, while one assists them to step from the bank. Let the ladies be comfortably seated, and their dresses arranged before starting. Be careful that you do not splash them, either on first putting the oar into the water or subsequently.

            If a friend is with you and going to row, always ask him which seat he prefers, and do not forget to ask him to row “stroke,” which is always the seat of honor in the boat.

Rowing.- If you cannot row, do not scruple to say so, as then you can take your seat by the side of the ladies, and entertain them by your conversation, which is much better than spoiling your own pleasure and that of others by attempting what you know you cannot perform.

            The usual costume of gentlemen is white flannel trousers, white rowing jersey, and a straw hat. Pea-jackets are worn when their owners are not absolutely employed in rowing.

Ladies Rowing.- Of late years ladies have taken very much to rowing; this can be easily managed in a quiet river or private pond, but it is scarcely to be attempted in the more crowded and public parts of our rivers – at any rate, unless superintended by gentlemen.
 
In moderation, it is a capital exercise for ladies; but when they attempt it they should bear in mind that they should assume a dress proper for the occasion. They should leave their crinoline at home, and wear a skirt barely touching the ground; they should also assume flannel Garibaldi shirts and little sailor hats – add to these a good pair of stout boots, and the equipment is complete. We should observe, however, that it is impossible for any lady to row with comfort or grace if she laces tightly.

Wells, A. M., Richard A., MANNERS, CULTURE AND DRESS, Massachusetts, King, Richardson & Company Publishers, 1893

 

Friday, April 19, 2013

19th CENTURY ETIQUETTE - ON PICNICS

Diane's Antique Book Collection

ETIQUETTE OF PUBLIC PLACES

 Picnics.- In giving a picnic, the great thing to remember is to be sure and have enough to eat and drink. Always provide for the largest possible number of guests that may by any chance come.

            Send out your invitations three weeks beforehand, in order that you may be enabled to fill up your list, if you have many refusals.

Always transport your guests to the scene of action in covered carriages, or carriages that are capable of being covered, in order that you may be provided against rain, which is proverbial on such occasions.
 
            Send a separate conveyance containing the provisions, in charge of two or three servants – not too many, as half the fun is lost if the gentlemen do not officiate as amateur waiters.

            The above rules apply to picnics which are given by one person, and to which invitations are sent out just the same as to an ordinary ball or dinner party. But there are picnics and picnics as the French say.

            Let us treat of the picnic, in which a lot of people join together for the purpose of a day’s ruralizing. In this case, it is usual for the ladies to contribute the viands. The gentlemen should provide and superintend all the arrangements for the conveyance of the guests to and from the scene of festivity.

How to Dress

            Great latitude in dress is allowed on these occasions. The ladies all come in morning dresses and hats; the gentlemen in light coats, wide-awake hats, caps, or straw hats. In fact, the morning dress of the seaside is quite de rigueur at a picnic. After dinner it is usual to pass the time in singing, or if there happens to be an orchestra of any kind, in dancing. This is varied by games of all kinds, croquet, etc. Frequently after this the company breaks up into little knots and coteries, each having its own centre of amusement.
 
Duties of Gentlemen

            Each gentleman should endeavor to do his utmost to be amusing on these occasions. If he has a musical instrument, and can play it, let him bring it – for instance, a cornet, which is barely tolerated in a private drawing-room, is a great boon, when well played at a picnic. On these occasions a large bell or gong should be taken, in order to summon the guests when required; and the guests should be careful to attend to the call at once, for many a pleasant party of this kind has been spoiled by a few selfish people keeping out of the way when wanted.

Committee of Arrangements

            Finally, it would be well on these occasions to have each department vested in the hands of one responsible person, in order that when we begin dinner we should not find a heap of forks but no knives, beef, but no mustard, lobster and lettuces but no salad-dressing, veal-and-ham, pies but no bread, and nearly fifty other such contretemps, which are sure to come about unless the matter is properly looked after and organized.

Wells, A. M., Richard A., MANNERS, CULTURE AND DRESS, Massachusetts, King, Richardson & Company Publishers, 1893

      

 

 

Friday, April 12, 2013

19th CENTURY ETIQUETTE - CONDUCT IN PICTURE-GALLERIES

Diane's Antique Book Collection

ETIQUETTE OF PUBLIC PLACES

Conduct in Picture-Galleries.- In visiting picture-galleries one should always maintain the deportment of a gentleman or lady. Make no loud comments, and do not seek to show superior knowledge in art matters by gratuitous criticism. Ten to one, if you have not an art education you will only be giving publicity to your own ignorance.

            Do not stand in conversation before a picture, and thus obstruct the view of others who wish to see rather than talk. If you wish to converse with any one on general subjects, draw to one side out of the way of those who wish to look at the pictures.

Wells, A. M., Richard A., MANNERS, CULTURE AND DRESS, Massachusetts, King, Richardson & Company Publishers, 1893

 

Friday, April 5, 2013

19th CENTURY ETIQUETTE - CHURCH OR FANCY FAIRS



Diane's Antique Book Collection

ETIQUETTE OF PUBLIC PLACES

Church or Fancy Fairs.- In visiting a fancy fair make no comments on either the articles or their price unless you can praise. Do not haggle over them. Pay the price demanded or let them alone. If you can conscientiously praise an article, by all means do so, as you may be giving pleasure to the maker if she chances to be within hearing.

Be guilty of no loud talking or laughing, and by all means avoid conspicuous flirting in so public a place.

 As, according to the general rules of politeness, a gentleman, must always remove his hat in the presence of ladies, so he should remain with head uncovered, carrying his hat in his hand, in a public place of this character.

 If you have a table at a fair, use no unlady like means to obtain buyers. Let a negative suffice. Not even the demands of charity can justify you in importuning others to purchase articles against their own judgment or beyond their means to purchase.

 Never be so grossly ill-bred as to retain the change if a large amount is presented than the price. Offer the change promptly, when the gentleman will be at liberty to donate it if he thinks best, and you may accept it with thanks. He is, however, under no obligation whatever to make such donation.

 Wells, A. M., Richard A., MANNERS, CULTURE AND DRESS, Massachusetts, King, Richardson & Company Publishers, 1893

 

Friday, March 29, 2013

19th CENTURY ETIQUETTE - INVITATION TO OPERA OR CONCERT

Diane's Antique Book Collection


ETIQUETTE OF PUBLIC PLACES

Invitation to Opera or Concert.- A gentleman upon inviting a lady to accompany him to opera, theatre, concert or other public place of amusement must send his invitation the previous day and write it in the third person. The lady must reply immediately, so that if she declines there will yet be time for the gentleman to secure another companion. 

            It is the gentleman’s duty to secure good seats for the entertainment, or else he or his companion may be obliged to take up with seats where they can neither see nor hear.

Wells, A. M., Richard A., MANNERS, CULTURE AND DRESS, Massachusetts, King, Richardson & Company Publishers, 1893

 

19th CENTURY ETIQUETTE - CONDUCT IN OPERA, THEATRE, OR PUBLIC HALL

Diane's Antique Book Collection

ETIQUETTE OF PUBLIC PLACES

 Conduct in Opera, Theatre, or Public Hall.- On entering the hall, theatre or opera-house the gentleman should walk side by side with his companion unless the aisle is too narrow, in which case he should precede her. Reaching the seats, he should allow her to take the inner one, assuming the outer one himself.

            A gentleman should on no account leave the lady’s side from the beginning to the close of the performance.

            If it is a promenade concert or opera, the lady may be invited to promenade during the intermission. If she declines, the gentleman must retain his position by her side.

            The custom of going out alone between the acts to visit the refreshment-room cannot be too strongly reprehended. It is little less than an insult to the lady.

            There is no obligation whatever upon a gentleman to give up his seat to a lady. On the contrary, his duty is solely to the lady whom he accompanies. He must remain beside her during the evening to converse with her between the acts and to render her assistance in case of accident or disturbance.

            It is proper and desirable that the actors be applauded when they deserve it. It is their only means of knowing whether they are giving satisfaction.

            During the performance complete quiet should be preserved, that the audience may not be prevented seeing or hearing. Between the acts it is perfectly proper to converse, but it should be in a low tone, so as not to attract attention. Neither should one whisper. There should be no loud talking, boisterous laughter, violent gestures, lover-like demonstrations or anything in manners or speech to attract the attention of others.
 
            The gentleman should see that the lady is provided with programme, and with libretto also if they are attending opera.

            The gentleman should ask permission to call upon the lady on the following day, which permission she should grant; and if she be a person of delicacy and tact, she will make him feel that he has conferred a real pleasure upon her by his invitation. Even if she finds occasion for criticism in the performance, she should be lenient in this respect and seek for points to praise instead, that he may not feel regret at taking her to an entertainment which has proved unworthy.

            If the means of the gentleman warrant him in so doing, he should call for his companion in a carriage. This is especially necessary if the evening is stormy. He should call sufficiently early to allow them to reach their destination before the performance commences. It is unjust to the whole audience to come in late and make a disturbance in obtaining seats.
 
            In passing out at the close of the performance the gentleman should precede the lady, and there should be no crowding and pushing.

 Wells, A. M., Richard A., MANNERS, CULTURE AND DRESS, Massachusetts, King, Richardson & Company Publishers, 1893